JBS Australia


  1. The Company
    1.1 About the company – Brief History, Size, Activities & Divisions
    Primo Foods was founded as P&M Quality Smallgoods PTY in 1985 with approximately 38 employees.
    It was located in Homebush, Sydney, and its manufacturing facility was located there. In 1991, the
    company expanded into Queensland through the acquisition of Gold Cob Smallgoods, which
    subsequently became Primo Foods and served as the original headquarters for Primo Queensland, with
    the aid of two warehouse locations in Acacia Ridge and Cairns. In 1998, Primo’s office moved from
    Homebush to Chullora, Sydney, and at the time, it was the most modern and technologically advanced
    facility in the Southern Hemisphere. JBS Foods Australia acquired Primo in 2015 and Primo Foods is
    one of more than 118 companies owned by JBS which is the largest food processing corporation in the
    world. JBS Foods Australia employs approximately 14,000 individuals, whereas Primo employs
    between 1,000 and 5,000. Primo Foods is the parent company of numerous brands, such as Primo, Hans,
    Mayfair and Dandy. Primo’s headquarters is located in Chullora, Sydney and it has two major locations
    in Queensland: 62 McRoyle Street (QLD Headquarters) and Production Street. Primo Foods is now
    Australia’s leading supplier of deli meats, providing quality processed meat to major retail groups
    including Aldi, Coles, Woolworths, and Costco, as well as Foodservice clients like Caterers and Quick
    Service Restaurants including Subway, Pizza Hut, and Hungry Jacks (1).
    1.2 Policies and philosophies
    Primo’s mission is to be the best at what they do, such as providing the best products and services to
    their customers, establishing a trustworthy relationship with their suppliers, generating a profit for their
    shareholders, and ensuring that their team members have ample growth opportunities. The core beliefs
    of Primo are –
  • Focusing on the results while being detail oriented
  • Having a practical approach
  • Working hard which leads to success
  • Being passionate about your work
  • Experience being more important than knowledge
  • A leader must win over their team members by leading by example
  • Working with people who are better than us
  • Believing makes the difference
  • Quality products (2).
    JBS has 7 values set for its employees and they are, availability i.e. being receptive and open to new
    challenges, determination to be relentless and making things happen, discipline where they expect all
    their team members to be punctual and fulfil commitments on time, ownership i.e. being committed to
    end results, focusing on details and taking responsibility, humility where everyone has the capability
    to listen and be helpful towards other people while being respectful, simplicity i.e. being practical at all
    times, focusing on important things and adopting a practical approach while avoiding bureaucracy and
    lastly there is sincerity which is being direct, truthful at all time while respecting other people and also
    your own boundaries (2).
    1.3 Role in domestic and international food supplies
    Primo has several domestic food supplies like providing variety of processed meat to giant supermarkets
    and wholesale distributors like Coles, Aldi, Woolworths, Costco. Other than that, Primo also supplies
    its products to fast service restaurants, high-end hotels, and restaurants. Additionally, they manufacture
    products for private labels customers as well (3).
    Primo exports products to New Zealand, Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, Philippines. Export
    products must be manufactured with export-accredited raw materials and the guidelines and nutritional
    levels also depend on the regulations of the destination country.
    1.4 Opportunities in Asian century
    As part of JBS Australia’s commitment to a sustainable future, Primo aims to attain net-zero greenhouse
    gas emissions by 2040. This initiative is called “Net Zero 2040.” JBS endorsed the United Nations
    Global Compact’s Business Ambition for 1.5°C initiative in an effort to limit global warming. They
    intend to reduce water consumption by 15%, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 12%, and severe
    injuries by 10% by 2025. By 2030, they intend to use 60% renewable electricity, reduce GHG emissions
    by 30%, and reduce the safety index by 30%. In 2040, they plan to use 100 percent renewable electricity
    and achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emissions across their complete value chain. They intend to
    achieve these goals by implementing the following strategies: promoting animal welfare and product
    integrity, process improvement and innovative projects to reduce water consumption, investing more
    than one billion dollars in emission reduction projects (Primo introduced over 30 electric hybrid cars to
    its sales fleet), eliminating illegal Amazon deforestation across its supply chain by 2035, using only
    renewable energy at its facilities by 2040 and investing 100 million dollars in emission reduction
    projects. In addition, they are aligned with the United Nations sustainable development goals: zero
    hunger, good health and well-being, clean water and sanitation, affordable and renewable energy,
    decent work and economic growth, responsible consumption and production, climate action, and the
    protection of aquatic and terrestrial life (4) (5) (6).
  1. The Factory
    2.1 Physical description, Size & Place of the factory within company structure
    The headquarters is located in Chullora, Sydney, at 18 Hume Highway. Whereas, the Queensland
    factory is located in the QLD headquarters at 62 McRoyle Street, Wacol, and is approximately 40,000
    square metres in size. There is another factory on Production Street which manufactures primarily snack
    foods; the meat is produced at 62 McRoyle Street and then transferred to Production St for packaging.
    Production St also conducts prototype plant trials in their pilot plant where the R&D team creates and
    tests new and existing food and packaging products. Additionally, there are butcher shops near the
    offices in both NSW and QLD sites where premier personnel can purchase meat at a discount.
    2.2 Main activities and products
    Primo Foods specialises in manufacturing deli meat products and they are known to be largest
    manufacturers of processed meat in the Southern Hemisphere. Some of the bacon products at Primo are
    Rindless middle, Rind on middles, Short cut, Streaky Bacon and some Salami products include
    Hungarian, Pepperoni, etc. Ham is also subdivided into additional categories like boneless and bone in
    Ham. Additionally, they manufacture delicatessen meats like Pastrami, Silverside. Smallgoods which
    are further divided into colonial smallgoods like Cooked Sausages, Devon, Frankfurt and continental
    smallgoods like Cabanossi, Chorizos, Kabana. They also do fresh sausages and snacks like Jatz and
    Some of the popular products are Short Cut and Middle Bacon, Mild Hungarian Salami, Champagne
    Ham, Prosciutto and Stackers Mild Salami.
    2.3 Special characteristics
    Primo engages in Christmas seasonal production by manufacturing products created specifically for
    Christmas. Some products include Blood Orange Marmalade Glazed Ham, Manuka Honey Ham,
    Festive Hamper which contains different types of meat. The production of these Christmas items
    typically begins in September and concludes in mid-November.
    2.4 Factory design
    The primary manufacturing facility is segregated into three risk zones. Low-risk areas include the raw
    side, where imported or/and domestic meat is processed. In the mid- and high-risk areas, there are two
    pack sides. Medium risk packside contains the Bacon, Salami slicing and Palletisation room and High
    risk packside contains the main packaging room which is Bulk Ham/Smallgoods pack as well as the
    Slice pack and Dicing room. In the packsides, all products are assessed, packaged and then shipped to
    the consumers. For reasons of confidentiality, it is not permissible to disclose every detail about the
    factory design in Primo Foods.
    2.5 Workplace Health and Safety requirements
    They have a number of activities on site to demonstrate a safe and healthy workplace –
  • making sure that all workers, contractors, visitors are aware of their responsibilities for their
    own and others safety by going through various training
  • having effective hazard and risk management protocols at workplace
  • allocating adequate resources, plans and people to deliver safety commitment
  • maintaining equipment and machinery and conducting regular checks
  • providing high quality innovative training programs for safety
  • implementing initiatives to prevent injuries and illnesses
  • promoting health and safety consultations amongst workers
  • continuously reviewing their safety programmes to ensure continuous improvement in
    workplace health and safety.
  • necessary injury management programs to reduce and eliminate workplace injuries (7).
    2.6 Level of technology
    Different product categories necessitate distinct varieties of factory machinery. The factory employs a
    Delinker (only in Smallgoods rooms) to separate the product into individual items, an Autoleader to
    sort the product before packing, a Thermoformer which involves forming the packet, sealing and
    shrinking the sealed packet (some lines have a dryer), a Metal Detector for final quality control by
    checking for the presence of metals and lastly, Slicers which are used to slice products into the desired
    dimensions. For reasons of confidentiality, it is not permissible to disclose every detail about the
    machines and procedures used by Primo.
    2.7 Energy usage (Special Characteristic) & waste disposal utilisation
    Primo Foods used to have Australia’s largest single rooftop solar installation at its primary factory in
    Wacol, which covered up to 25,000 square metres (nearly 75 percent of the factory roof area). Solar
    panels were installed in collaboration with CleanPeak Energy and Todae Solar as part of Primo’s
    initiative to maintain a sustainable business that contributes to a better world. The solar panels were
    expected to generate 4,869 MWh of electricity in their first year of use, compared to their record of
    38,000 MWh per year, allowing Primo to save upto 1.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide over a 20-year
    period. This solar panel decreases the site’s energy consumption by 19% (8).
    All food waste generated from imported and domestic meat are heated at 100 degree Celsius for 30
    minutes before disposing them off. Under the Australian Quarantine laws, it’s compulsory for the
    imported meat to be heat treated.
  1. Management aspects
    3.1 Organisational Structure
    Brent Eastwood is the president of JBS Australia and Bruce Sabatta who is the Chief Operating Officer
    of Primo directly reports to him. The COO has around 14 general managers that directly report to him
    and the specialised departments are operations, sales, supply chain, finance, innovation and strategy,
    quality & technical, fresh meats, export & QSR, marketing & innovation and HR. The general manager
    of quality and technical has 31 heads reporting to her, this includes Technical and R&D, Food Safety
    & Regulatory, Quality assurance & Quality control, Product Developers, Technical Compliance,
    Quality Systems and Packaging teams. Product Lifecycle Management team is under the Technical and
    R&D team and it looks after the Billing of Materials, Product Specifications, Regulatory side of the
    products in Primo. R&D team has both the developers who develop new products and the packaging
    team which takes care of packaging materials. More information on management can’t be disclosed due
    to confidentiality reasons.
    3.2 Brief description of role and workplace environment
    Product Lifecyle Management (PLM) team has a PLM manager and 9 people work under them. Apart
    from the PLM manager, there is are PLM Leaders and Coordinators, PLM Partners and Regulatory
    Specialists. As a Product Lifecyle Management intern, I was part of 4 major projects –
  • Food partners BoM Remediation Project – analysing production data for accurate costing, yields
    and Bill of Materials (BoM).
  • Labelling compliance project (PEAL – Plain English Allergen Labelling) – performed label
    artwork check using In-House labels for more than 50 products to ensure labels were compliant
    with the new allergen (PEAL) and regulatory requirements of Food Standards Australia New
    Zealand (FSANZ).
  • Raw Material (wet and dry ingredients) specification audit to ensure ongoing accuracy and
    compliance to Primo standards, Private Label customers and FSANZ.
  • Bacon project – Responsible for updating packing specification of A and B grade Bacon on
    Information Leader (iLeader).
    Some of the other responsibilities included updating packing specifications on iLeader, performing
    systems update ensuring obsolete and deleted products were archived across various systems (iLeader,
    AS400, product folders), actioning change management requests to ensure product specifications were
    up to date. Conducted data analysis of snacking product weights by comparing the data recorded in
    AS400 to find out their yield and loss and also reviewed technical documentations from suppliers.
    3.3 Management attitude and motivation of employees
    To celebrate and reward their staff, Primo holds monthly primo awards and annual primo awards. These
    awards are based on Primo’s seven values and employees receive gift hampers or gift cards upon
    winning. Primo also has a butcher shop nearby its main location where employees can get discounts.
    Primo hosts luncheons for its employees to celebrate special occasions like Women’s day, Harmony
    day for cultural diversity, Water day, World Bacon day, etc. Primo also does Primo Tuesdays where all
    Primo employees wear their Primo shirt to work in appreciation of the company. Primo gives all
    employees Covid and flu shots on site. There are many professional and personal development websites
    like Thrive where employees can take up courses and gain insights and learn new skills. A main part of
    Primo culture is their one on one catch ups with direct managers occasionally.
    3.4 Policies related to safety, sexual harassment, consumption of alcohol
    Primo’s safety culture is non-negotiable, and their primary objective is that everyone returns home
    safely every day to their “Top 4” priorities. Legislative changes, staff or management recommendations,
    audits, and external expertise have shaped the Workplace Health and Safety policy for 30 years in JBS.
    Primo is committed to a bully-free workplace. Sexual harassment and alcohol consumption are strictly
    forbidden, and the Code of Conduct and Compliance Standards assure everyone’s safety. They have
    many preventative and instructional strategies to combat unsafe habits. To ensure workplace safety,
    Primo performs pre-employment, pre-entry, reasonable suspicion, post-incident, and follow-up drug
    tests. The tests use oral swabs for drug screening and breathalysers for alcohol testing. They have a
    sexual harassment hotline and complaints officer for employees to report workplace sexual harassment
    and abuse. This entire line is confidential, and disclosure could result in a defamation lawsuit.
    Additionally, violating these policies leads to termination of employment (9) (10).
    3.5 Training of employees
    Employees are provided with orientation and training programmes, as well as the necessary resources,
    to ensure they have the relevant knowledge and abilities to perform their duties. Plans for continuous
    development are in place to maintain the relevance of their training programmes. The training
    programmes are also administered by highly qualified experts with knowledge of Vocational Education
    and Training (VET). Induction training, traineeships (employees sign a training contract with the
    employer), on-the-job and off-the-job training using various task descriptions, procedural statements,
    standard operating procedures, one-on-one coaching, etc., and management and leadership development
    training programmes round out their training offerings (11).
    3.6 Staff grievances & Union influence
    If employees have concerns or are aware of misconduct, they can raise them with their supervisors or
    other leaders, the legal or human resources department, or the ethics hotline. Employees can also
    register their concerns through the JBS compliance programme. Primo adheres to all labour regulations
    and prohibits the use of juvenile and forced labour. They are adamantly opposed to the exploitation,
    physical punishment, and maltreatment of team members (9).
    As far as union influence is concerned, the only union on-site is the Australian Meat Industry Union,
    which visits once a month or every three months to speak with employees about their working
    conditions and ensure that they are supported and cared for.
    3.7 Production scheduling & Production management tools
    Production at Wacol factory is 24 hours and it is divided into 3 shifts – first one starts at 5 am and
    finishes by 3pm. The afternoon shift starts around 3pm and continues till late night (12am) and the last
    shift starts from 12am and continues until 6am. The last shift mainly focuses on cleaning the factory
    and machineries and getting it ready for the morning shift. There is a supervisor and a quality assurance
    person in every production line ensuring the products are meeting standards.
    Planners organise production by week and day based on sales and stock levels. They establish a twoyear plan and reduce it down to a week for a production planner, who allocates the week into days and
    has a list of duties to complete that week, including ordering meat, dry goods, capacity planning, and
    labour. To deliver the merchandise next week, they do this a week ahead. Planners use Optimity which
    provides the best plan for maximum profit and supply at minimal expense. Pronto, Paperless, MRP
    scheduler/RM planner are other tools which displays stock and orders. More information on
    production can’t be disclosed due to confidentiality reasons.
    3.8 Quality and food safety systems
    Primo’s major mission is to give safe, nutritious, high-quality food to their clients. New hires receive
    quality assurance and food safety management system training as well as job-specific training. Quality
    assurance team members receive HACCP and other food safety and quality assurance training. The
    Department of Agriculture and Water Resources (DAWR) inspects export facilities to verify products
    meet FSANZ and international market standards. Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), Sanitation
    Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs), and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
    procedures are used in their food safety programmes to eliminate or reduce microbiological, chemical,
    and physical hazards from raw material production. On-site and off-site FSAQ members monitor these
    processes and conduct regular audits to ensure compliance. They also have a Good Manufacturing
    Practises (GMP) Programme, a recall/market withdrawal procedure that provides the necessary
    information for proper products and dates to be identified, a livestock certification programme that
    requires all cattle producers to certify compliance with federal regulations, pest control and food
    security programmes, annual certification to the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) Standards for
    93% of Primo facilities, and they invest substantially in high-end technology and innovation to satisfy
    high product quality standards. They also use GFSI-accredited or independent auditing firms to do
    several food safety and quality system audits. FSQA team members must also conduct internal audits
    and inspections. To ensure product safety, traceability, and GMP, raw materials and food contact
    providers must be GFSI certified or audited by a food safety auditor (12). For reasons of confidentiality,
    it is not permissible to disclose more details about the food quality systems employed by Primo Foods.
  1. References
  2. (2) Primo Foods : My Company | LinkedIn [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  3. Culture — JBS Foods [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  4. About Primo Foods | Primo Food Service [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  5. Sustainability — JBS Foods [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  6. Sustainability Agenda [Internet]. Available from:
    http://jbsintranet.amh.com.au/CommunityEngagement/Community Engagement/JBS Sustainability
  7. Net Zero — JBS Foods [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  8. Workplace Health and Safety Policy [Internet]. Available from:
    http://jbsintranet.amh.com.au/HR/Documents/2. Policies/Workplace Health and Safety Policy/JBS
    WHS Policy 2021.pdf
  9. Hogan R. Primo Foods unveils Australia’s largest single rooftop solar installation [Internet].
    Inside FMCG. 2019 [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from: https://insidefmcg.com.au/2019/01/20/primofoods-unveils-australias-largest-solar-panel-roof/
  10. Compliance — JBS Foods [Internet]. [cited 2023 May 4]. Available from:
  11. Code of Conduct [Internet]. Available from: www.jbsintranet.com
  12. Employee Training [Internet]. Available from: www.jbsintranet.com
  13. Food Safety and Quality [Internet]. JBS USA | Sustainability Report. [cited 2023 May 4].
    Available from: https://sustainability.jbsfoodsgroup.com/chapters/customers-and-consumers/foodsafety-quality/
    Natural preservatives in the meat industry – what preservatives are used in meat and what
    options are there to replace them with natural alternatives?
  14. Introduction
    Lipid oxidation can degrade the quality of meat due to exposure to atmospheric oxygen, UV radiation,
    endogenous enzymes, free radicals, and transition metals, and it’s one of the most significant problems
    in the meat industry (1). It can also occur due to the high lipid content and low water activity of meat,
    resulting in a loss of nutritional value, unpleasant flavour and texture, and a shortened shelf life (2).
    Due to the meat’s high nutrient content, it is susceptible to microbial and detrimental pathogenic attacks,
    posing a significant threat to food safety ((3). To combat this issue, preservatives are added in meat
    which protect them from lipid oxidation, deterioration caused by microorganisms and their chemical
    compounds, as well as to inhibit the growth of pathogenic organisms due to their antioxidant and
    antimicrobial properties. They are intended to be added in minute amounts (less than 0.2% by weight)
    for maximal effect. They should be safe to consume and rapidly eliminated from the body, without
    accumulating in adipose tissues or bones (4).
    In recent years, there has also been a rise in consumer awareness about what they are bringing into their
    bodies because of the harmful effects of synthetic preservatives, as a result, people are seeking natural,
    unprocessed food due to its wholesomeness. This has consequently placed a great deal of pressure on
    food companies and technologists to find natural, minimally processed preservatives (4). In this article,
    we will examine the current preservatives used in the meat industry, the natural alternatives that are
    available, and compare them.
  15. Current preservatives in the meat industry
    Some common preservatives used in meat products are nitrites and sulphites which extend the shelf life
    of meat products while protecting it from microorganisms. Nitrites and nitrates such as E249 (potassium
    nitrite), E250 (sodium nitrite), E251 (sodium nitrate), and E252 (potassium nitrate) are commonly used
    to inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum and other pathogens in meat products such as ham,
    sausages, and bacon. They are introduced during the curing process to give cured meats their distinctive
    hue. The formation of nitric/nitrous acid and nitrous oxide is responsible for the antimicrobial activity
    of nitrites, and the total amount of nitrites and nitrates added should not exceed 200ppm. The addition
    of Sodium chloride, Sodium erythorbate, and ascorbate increases the activity of nitrites (5). Sulphur
    dioxide preservative (E220) are used because they can inhibit the proliferation of yeasts, fungi, and
    bacteria (6). According to the FSANZ Food standards code 1.3.1, only 500 mg/kg of sulphites may be
    added to processed comminuted meat and sausages in Australia (7). Other preservatives added to meat
    include ascorbic, citric, and lactic acids; their uses and effects are outlined in Fig 1.
    Fig 1– Common meat preservatives (4)
  16. Natural preservatives
    Plants contain beneficial bioactive compounds that enhance the chemical composition of meat. They
    are rich in macro- and micronutrients and low in anti-nutritional substances. Herbs and spices contain
    high concentrations of phenolic compounds with extraordinary H-donating activity, which inhibit the
    formation of free radicals (2). Polyphenols interact with microbial cell walls, resulting in the disruption
    and discharge of cellular contents, loss of osmotic control, and death of the cells. They are able to inhibit
    DNA synthesis and induce protein biosynthesis in bacteria, thereby altering their metabolic process (8).
    The high concentration of phenolic compounds in plant extracts is said to increase their antioxidant
    activity. Fruit extracts, such as Annatto seed flour, have been shown to inhibit the oxidation of lipids
    and proteins in pork patties. The high vitamin C content of Acerola extract has been shown to reduce
    rancid flavour in beef patties without altering the microbial load. Other fruit extracts that have been
    shown to substantially reduce lipid oxidation include wine pomace, white grape, strawberry, and
    pomegranate extracts. Olive and tea extracts, soy sauce, and curry leaf extract have also been shown to
    inhibit lipid oxidation in beef, chicken, and pork patties while enhancing colour stability. Rosemary is
    a common herb utilised for its high antioxidant properties, which have been demonstrated to inhibit
    oxidation in sausages and preserve their red colour (2). In Australia, however, rosemary cannot be
    declared as a preservative per FSANZ guidelines (9). Cinnamon, cloves, citrous products, papaya,
    lychee seed, bamboo shoot, oregano, etc., are some other commonly used plant extracts in meat, and
    they possess exceptional antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Fig. 2 illustrates how plant extracts
    are utilised as natural preservatives and how they can increase consumer acceptability (10).
    Fig 2: Plant extract as natural preservatives (10)
    Plant essential oils (EO) are secondary metabolites that derive their antioxidant properties from
    flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids (2). Their antimicrobial activity is dependent on how these
    secondary metabolites interact with the microbial cell wall, i.e. how the hydrophobic components
    interact with the lipid cell membrane, which ultimately results in cell death. Fig 3 demonstrates the
    antioxidant feature of EO and how it inhibits lipid oxidation (11).
    Fig 3: Mechanism of action (12)
    They are a significant source of antioxidant bioactive compounds. Oregano EOs are rich in phenolic
    compounds, primarily carvacrol and thymol, which possess significant antioxidant properties. The EOs
    of thyme and sage contain the free radical scavengers thymol, borneol, and viridiflorol. Other preferred
    EOs include clove EO with eugenol and ginger EOs extracted from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale.
    Important to bear in mind is the legal dose of EOs in meat products, which varies from country to
    country based on its fat content (12). Nevertheless, the microbiota present in meat, the chemical
    composition and biological activity of EOs, the food system, and the interaction between EOs and the
    food system will significantly impact the efficacy of EOs (figure 4) (11).
    Fig 4: Efficacy of essential oils (11).
  17. Critique
    Consumption of synthetic preservatives in heavy amounts can have significant adverse effects on the
    human body, including damage to genetic material, an increase in blood cholesterol levels, loss of
    vitamin D, and other allergic and respiratory issues (10).
    Thiamine could be destroyed by sulphur dioxide, resulting in vitamin B1 depletion. It has been linked
    by some studies to the development of malignancy and allergic reactions within the human body.
    Nitrates in meat products are converted to nitrites, which react with acids in the human body (HCl in
    the stomach) to form nitrous acids, which can react with amines to form nitrosamines, which are
    genotoxic carcinogens (6). In sensitive individuals, sulphites can cause allergic reactions, respiratory
    issues, and skin problems (5).
    In contrast, plant phenols and essential oils contain bioactive compounds that extend the shelf life of
    animal products. Essential oils are gaining popularity due to their ability to inhibit pathogen growth and
    food spoilage and to enhance organoleptic qualities (2). Polyphenols can prevent pathogen proliferation,
    lipid oxidation, and meat discoloration (8). Plant extracts can prevent the formation of nitrosamines by
    decreasing the amount of residual nitrite in meat. In an experiment with smoked sausages containing
    natural preservatives such as green tea polyphenols, grape seed, and rosemary extract, the levels of
    residual nitrite were reduced (10).
    However, polyphenols are only beneficial if they are consumed within the recommended dose;
    exceeding that amount can result in toxic effects such as carcinogenicity, interference with thyroid
    hormone biosynthesis, and iron depletion (8). In a study on grape seed extract as a preservative, it was
    discovered that excessive doses resulted in a pro-oxidant effect and caused cell toxicity. To determine
    if natural preservatives are 100% secure for human consumption with no side effects, extensive research
    is still required in this area (13). In an experiment conducted on frozen beef patties, rosemary oil
    inhibited lipid oxidation when administered at a dose of 150ppm; however, the same EO promoted
    oxidation when administered at higher concentrations, such as 300ppm. It is also recommended to
    combine EO with other food additives and preservation techniques; in this way, lower concentrations
    of EO can be used without affecting the sensory characteristics (12). In vitro research has also
    demonstrated that the bioactivity of EOs decreases when they are combined with food systems;
    therefore, higher doses may need to be administered, which can be harmful to human bodies; for
    example, a high fat content can reduce the efficacy of EO, and a low water content can inhibit the
    transfer of antimicrobial compounds to microbial cell walls. Even in high concentrations, EO was found
    to cause significant sensory changes in meat products, such as a reduction in the acceptability of minced
    meat and fresh sausages due to the potent aroma of peppermint and garlic EOs, which were used as
    preservatives, respectively (11).
  18. Conclusion
    Preservatives are required to extend shelf life and safeguard food, particularly meat, which is so
    susceptible to microbial attack, thereby preventing dreadful epidemics. Convenient and advantageous,
    artificial preservatives extend shelf life longer than natural ones and do not alter the sensory qualities
    of a product like natural ones. Even though natural preservatives are healthier and do not cause damage
    to the body like artificial ones do, and people prefer them more, organic products are expensive and
    cannot be afforded in the current economic climate. As long as synthetic preservatives are used in the
    appropriate quantity, they have little impact on the body. Despite the fact that it would be preferable to
    use only organic additives due to their numerous benefits, I believe that synthetic preservatives should
    still be used and that natural preservatives require additional research and development to completely
    replace synthetic preservatives in the meat industry.
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